How to Help Someone Having a Diabetic Emergency

For a diabetic emergency, particularly when someone is experiencing either hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), the following steps can be taken:

  1. Assess the Situation: Approach the person calmly and assess the situation. Determine if the person is conscious and responsive.
  2. Check Blood Sugar Levels: If the person is conscious and able to communicate, ask if they have a glucose meter and if they have checked their blood sugar levels recently. If not, and if you have access to a glucose meter, you may check their blood sugar level if they consent.
  3. Recognize Symptoms:
    • Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar): Symptoms may include confusion, dizziness, sweating, weakness, trembling, irritability, or loss of consciousness.
    • Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar): Symptoms may include excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, fruity-smelling breath, nausea, vomiting, or confusion.
  4. If Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar):
    • Give them a fast-acting carbohydrate source immediately, such as glucose tablets, fruit juice, honey, or sugar candies.
    • Avoid foods with fat as they can delay the absorption of sugar.
    • Recheck their blood sugar after 15 minutes. If it remains low, repeat the treatment.
  5. If Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar):
    • Encourage the person to drink water to stay hydrated.
    • Monitor their condition closely. If they have high blood sugar levels and exhibit symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a life-threatening complication of diabetes, seek medical help immediately.
  6. Stay with the Person: Monitor their condition closely. If they become unconscious, call emergency services immediately.
  7. Seek Medical Help if Necessary: If the person’s condition doesn’t improve or if they lose consciousness, call emergency services immediately.
  8. Provide Support: Offer reassurance and support to the person throughout the process.

Remember, it’s crucial to act promptly and seek medical assistance if needed, especially if the person is unconscious or if their condition doesn’t improve with initial treatment. If you’re unsure about the appropriate steps to take, it’s always best to err on the side of caution and seek professional medical help. For more information, be sure to take a first aid course!

Do Wellness Programs Work?

Wellness programs can be effective, but it really depends on various factors such as the design of the program, the level of engagement from participants, and the organization’s commitment to supporting employee well-being.

Studies have shown that well-designed wellness programs can lead to positive outcomes such as improved employee health, increased productivity, reduced absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs for employers. These programs often include initiatives such as fitness challenges, healthy eating seminars, stress management workshops, and incentives for healthy behaviors.

However, the success of a wellness program also hinges on employee participation and buy-in. If employees don’t feel motivated to engage with the program or if the initiatives don’t resonate with them, the impact may be limited.

Additionally, it’s essential for organizations to create a supportive culture that prioritizes employee well-being beyond just offering wellness programs. This can involve promoting work-life balance, fostering a positive work environment, and providing resources for mental health support.

Overall, while wellness programs have the potential to work, their effectiveness ultimately depends on a combination of factors including program design, employee engagement, and organizational support. Be sure to add CPR and First Aid training as part of any well rounded wellness program!

Hands Only CPR vs Traditional CPR

Hands-only CPR, also known as compression-only CPR, is a simplified form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that focuses solely on chest compressions without mouth-to-mouth breathing. Traditional CPR involves a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths. Here’s a comparison between the two:

  1. Technique:
    • Hands-only CPR: Only chest compressions are performed. Rescuers push down on the chest at a rate of about 100 to 120 compressions per minute, aiming for a depth of at least 2 inches for adults and 1/3 of the chest depth for infants.
    • Traditional CPR: It involves both chest compressions and rescue breaths. After a set of compressions, the rescuer delivers two rescue breaths into the victim’s mouth while keeping the airway open.
  2. Effectiveness:
    • Hands-only CPR: It is found to be as effective as traditional CPR for adults who collapse from cardiac arrest in a non-hospital setting.
    • Traditional CPR: This method is effective for various causes of cardiac arrest and may be particularly important in situations where the victim has suffered from respiratory arrest (e.g., drowning).
  3. Simplicity and Ease of Training:
    • Hands-only CPR: It is simpler and easier to learn, remember, and perform compared to traditional CPR. This makes it more accessible to the general public and increases the likelihood of bystander intervention in emergencies.
    • Traditional CPR: It requires training not only in chest compressions but also in delivering rescue breaths and maintaining proper airway management.
  4. Applicability:
    • Hands-only CPR: It is recommended for use by bystanders who witness an adult suddenly collapse in a non-hospital setting, particularly if they are untrained or uncomfortable with performing mouth-to-mouth breathing.
    • Traditional CPR: It is recommended in situations involving infants, children, or victims of drowning or drug overdose, where respiratory issues are prominent, and immediate rescue breaths are crucial.
  5. Public Awareness and Acceptance:
    • Hands-only CPR: It has gained widespread acceptance due to its simplicity and effectiveness. Public health campaigns often promote this method to encourage bystander intervention.
    • Traditional CPR: While still an essential skill taught in CPR training programs, traditional CPR may be perceived as more intimidating or complex for some individuals, leading to hesitation in performing CPR in emergency situations.

In summary, hands-only CPR offers a simplified and effective approach to CPR, particularly for adult victims of sudden cardiac arrest. However, traditional CPR remains vital in situations involving specific populations or causes of cardiac arrest where rescue breaths are crucial. Both techniques are important skills to learn and can significantly increase the chances of survival in cardiac emergencies.

Be sure to take a CPR class today!

CPR for Drowning Victims

Quickly providing care to a victim who is in respiratory or cardiac arrest is very important. Allowing too much time to pass before care is provided can make the difference if a victim survives respiratory and cardiac arrest.  Some lifeguard programs advocate providing ventilations in the water before the victim is removed. This is based on guidelines from the 2011 United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition.

With that stated, the 2011 USLSC clearly states the survival rate is increased in open water settings.  The studies cited advocating in-water ventilations were conducted in open-water settings where victims were minutes away from shore.  No research has been shown (or done that we can find) to show in-water ventilations improves outcomes for drowning victims in swimming pools.  Unless you are a lifeguard with specific training in this skill, responders should remove the victim from the water and provide care.

If you employed by a facility and are operating within the standard of care that has sufficient staff trained to properly remove a victim from the water, we cannot see the time spent providing in-water ventilations vs removing a victim and providing care to have a meaningful improved outcome.  This makes the skill unnecessary in a pool setting.  Care can certainly be provided more effectively on land-especially for CPR and airway management. 

A more updated review of in-water ventilations, as well as, other resuscitation interventions for drownings, have found the efficacy of in-water ventilations to be inconclusive.  In fact, the study most cited by advocates of the skill from Brazil “was assessed as providing very low certainty evidence.”

For more information, be sure to take a CPR class today!

Advice for Treating a Burn

Treating burns properly is essential to promote healing, reduce pain, and prevent infection. Here’s some of the best advice for treating burns:

  1. Cool the burn: Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running water for at least 10 to 20 minutes, or until the pain subsides. Avoid using ice or very cold water, as this can further damage the skin.
  2. Remove tight clothing and jewelry: If clothing or jewelry is not stuck to the burn, remove it to prevent constriction and allow for proper cooling and healing.
  3. Protect the burn: Once the burn has been cooled, cover it with a sterile, non-adhesive dressing or clean cloth to protect it from friction and infection. Avoid using cotton balls or fluffy material, as these can stick to the wound.
  4. Avoid popping blisters: If blisters form, do not pop them. Blisters act as a natural barrier against infection. Popping them increases the risk of infection and delays healing.
  5. Use pain relief: Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help reduce pain and inflammation associated with burns. Follow the recommended dosage instructions.
  6. Seek medical attention for severe burns: If the burn is severe (large, deep, or covering a sensitive area like the face, hands, feet, or genitals), or if it is accompanied by symptoms like fever, chills, or signs of infection, seek medical attention immediately.
  7. Do not use butter, oil, or toothpaste: Despite common misconceptions, these substances can actually trap heat and bacteria, worsening the burn and increasing the risk of infection.
  8. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water to help your body recover from the burn and maintain proper hydration levels.
  9. Follow up with a healthcare professional: If you have any concerns about the burn or if it’s not healing properly, consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Remember, the severity of a burn can vary, so it’s important to assess each burn individually and seek appropriate medical care if necessary. For additional information be sure to take a CPR and First Aid class.

Make a First Aid Kit for your Home or Business

Creating a first aid kit is an essential step for any household, workplace, or outdoor adventure. Here’s a guide to help you assemble one:


Choose a waterproof, durable container to store your first aid supplies. A plastic or metal box with a lid works well. You can also use a backpack or pouch for portability.

Essential Supplies:

  1. Bandages and Dressings:
    • Adhesive bandages (various sizes)
    • Sterile gauze pads
    • Adhesive tape
    • Elastic bandages (Ace bandage)
    • Sterile eye pads
  2. Antiseptics:
    • Antiseptic wipes or solution (e.g., iodine or alcohol wipes)
    • Hydrogen peroxide
    • Antiseptic ointment or cream (like Neosporin)
  3. Tools and Instruments:
    • Scissors
    • Tweezers
    • Thermometer (preferably digital)
    • Safety pins
    • Disposable gloves
  4. Medications:
    • Pain relievers (e.g., acetaminophen, ibuprofen)
    • Antihistamine for allergic reactions (e.g., Benadryl)
    • Anti-inflammatory cream (e.g., hydrocortisone)
    • Aspirin (for heart attacks, under medical guidance)
    • Personal prescription medications
  5. Additional Supplies:
    • CPR mask
    • Instant cold packs
    • Medical tape
    • Oral rehydration salts
    • Eyewash solution
    • First aid manual or guide
    • Emergency contact information


  • Personal Needs: Tailor your kit to the specific needs of your household or group. For example, if someone has allergies, include allergy medication.
  • Specialty Items: If you have specific medical conditions or participate in particular activities (e.g., hiking, camping), consider adding items like insect repellent, blister treatment, or a splint.
  • Check and Replace: Regularly check your first aid kit for expired medications and supplies. Replace items as needed.
  • Location: Keep your first aid kit in a readily accessible location, known to all household members or colleagues.

Optional Additions:

  • A basic first aid manual or instruction booklet.
  • Personal medications such as prescription drugs or EpiPen for severe allergies.
  • A small flashlight with extra batteries.
  • Whistle for attracting attention in emergencies.


  • Organize your first aid supplies in labeled pouches or compartments for easy access.
  • Keep frequently used items towards the top or in a separate compartment for quick retrieval during emergencies.


Lastly, having a first aid/CPR training course can greatly enhance the effectiveness of your first aid kit. Knowing how to use the items in the kit properly can make a significant difference in an emergency situation.

Remember, a first aid kit is a proactive measure to handle emergencies effectively. Regularly check and update your kit to ensure it remains relevant and functional.

When Should Rescuers Switch Positions During CPR?

During CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation), it’s essential for rescuers to switch positions if they are performing the procedure for an extended period to ensure the effectiveness of the compressions and to prevent rescuer fatigue. Here are general guidelines for when and how often rescuers should switch positions:

  1. Time Interval for Switching: Rescuers should aim to switch positions every 2 minutes or after about 5 cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths, whichever comes first. This timing aligns with the recommended rate of compressions and allows for minimal interruption in chest compressions.
  2. Monitoring Rescuer Fatigue: It’s crucial to switch positions before the rescuer performing compressions becomes too fatigued to maintain effective compression depth and rate. Signs of fatigue can include slowing of compressions, decreased depth, or visible signs of physical strain.
  3. Quick Switch to Minimize Interruption: The switch between rescuers should be as quick and smooth as possible to minimize interruptions in chest compressions. Ideally, the switch should take less than 5 seconds to ensure continuous blood flow to the brain and other vital organs.
  4. Communication is Key: Before starting CPR, rescuers should agree on the signal or command for switching. Clear communication during the resuscitation effort is crucial to coordinate the switch and other aspects of care efficiently.
  5. Training and Practice: Regular CPR training and practice, including the switch maneuver, can help rescuers become more efficient and comfortable with the process, reducing the time needed to switch and ensuring the high quality of compressions throughout the resuscitation effort.

These guidelines are based on recommendations from organizations such as the American Heart Association (AHA) and are designed to maximize the effectiveness of CPR while ensuring the safety and endurance of the rescuers. It’s always important to stay updated with the latest CPR guidelines as they can evolve based on new research and consensus in the medical community.

Be sure to take a CPR class today!

The Cardiac Chain of Survival

The Cardiac Chain of Survival is a series of critical actions that, when performed in sequence, significantly increase the likelihood of survival following a cardiac arrest. This concept is widely promoted by various health organizations, including the American Heart Association (AHA), as a guideline for both laypeople and medical professionals to follow during a cardiac emergency. The chain consists of the following links:

  1. Immediate Recognition and Activation of the Emergency Response System: This step involves recognizing the signs of a cardiac arrest, such as sudden collapse or unresponsiveness, and immediately calling emergency services (like 911 in the United States). Early recognition and calling for help are crucial to start the survival chain.
  2. Early Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Performing CPR promptly is critical because it helps maintain vital blood flow to the heart and brain until professional help arrives. Bystander CPR, especially if performed immediately, can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival.
  3. Rapid Defibrillation: This involves the use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) to deliver an electric shock to the heart. Defibrillation can restore a regular cardiac rhythm in a person who has suffered a cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia.
  4. Effective Advanced Life Support: This step is provided by healthcare professionals and includes the advanced airway management, intravenous medications, and other interventions needed to support life and promote the restoration of a normal heart rhythm.
  5. Integrated Post-Cardiac Arrest Care: After the immediate emergency is over, the patient needs specialized care aimed at preserving brain function, managing other critical aspects of the patient’s health, and facilitating rehabilitation. This includes therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body), controlled reoxygenation, and other measures to improve the patient’s recovery.

Understanding and implementing the Cardiac Chain of Survival can significantly impact survival

Be sure to take a CPR class to learn how to save a life! 

What is Hands Only CPR?

Hands-only CPR, also known as compression-only CPR, is a method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that focuses solely on chest compressions without the incorporation of rescue breaths. It’s designed to simplify the process of CPR for untrained bystanders in case of an emergency. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends hands-only CPR in certain situations, particularly for adults who suddenly collapse in an “out-of-hospital” setting. Here’s a brief guide on how to perform it:

  1. Check the Scene and the Person: Ensure the scene is safe before approaching the person. Check if the person is responsive by shouting at them and shaking their shoulder gently. If there is no response and the person is not breathing or only gasping, call for emergency medical services (if you’re alone, use a mobile phone on speaker mode so you can continue to assist the person).
  2. Position Your Hands: Place the heel of one hand on the center of the person’s chest (on the lower half of the breastbone). Place your other hand on top of the first hand, interlocking your fingers.
  3. Start Chest Compressions: Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands. Use your body weight to help you administer compressions that are at least 2 inches (5 cm) deep, but not more than 2.4 inches (6 cm), at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute. The AHA suggests compressing to the beat of a familiar song that matches this tempo, like “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees.
  4. Continue Compressions: Keep performing chest compressions until professional help arrives or an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available and ready to use. If you become exhausted, try to find someone else to take over compressions.

Hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR (which includes breaths) in the first few minutes after a sudden cardiac arrest in adults. This method is not recommended for infants or children, victims of drowning, drug overdose, or people whose cardiac arrest is due to respiratory problems. In those cases, conventional CPR with breaths is more appropriate.

The simplicity of hands-only CPR increases the likelihood that bystanders will take action in an emergency, which can significantly improve the survival rates of individuals experiencing cardiac arrest outside of a hospital setting.

What to Do in a Heart Attack Emergency

If you believe you are experiencing a medical emergency, please call your emergency number immediately (such as 911) and seek immediate medical attention.

However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides general guidance on recognizing the signs of a heart attack and what to do:

  1. Call for Emergency Help: If you suspect you or someone else is having a heart attack, call your local emergency number immediately. In the United States, it’s 911.
  2. Chew Aspirin, if Recommended: If you have been prescribed aspirin by a healthcare provider, and you’re not allergic to it, chew it while waiting for emergency medical services. Aspirin can help thin the blood and improve blood flow to the heart.
  3. Stay Calm and Rest: Try to stay as calm as possible. Rest in a comfortable position while waiting for emergency personnel.
  4. Do Not Drive Yourself: It’s generally not advisable to drive yourself to the hospital during a heart attack. Emergency medical services can provide faster and more appropriate care.

Remember that early intervention is crucial during a heart attack. The above steps are general guidelines, and individual cases may vary. Always follow the advice of healthcare professionals and seek immediate medical attention if you suspect a heart attack.